Tenure and Global Climate Change (TGCC) in Zambia

Impact Evaluation
An enumerator conducts a baseline survey in the Zambian village of Mangulu for the TGCC projects impact evaluation.
An enumerator conducts a baseline survey in the Zambian village of Mangulu for the TGCC projects impact evaluation.

The USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change project in Zambia is a 3.5-year intervention (2014-2017) supporting agroforestry extension services and working to increase tenure security at the chiefdom, village and household levels in the Chipata District of Zambia’s Eastern Province. The project supports USAID development objectives of improved governance, reduced rural poverty through improved agricultural productivity of smallholders, improved natural resource management, and improved resilience of vulnerable households.


USAID is supporting the design and implementation of a rigorous impact evaluation (IE) of the TGCC project intervention in Zambia. The primary objective of the TGCC IE is to determine whether strengthening smallholder tenure security and resource rights leads to increased farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry and increased adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) practices. The IE is a four-arm randomized control trial, designed to assess direct and joint impacts of the agroforestry extension intervention and tenure strengthening interventions on four outcome families of interest including changes in: household perceptions of tenure security over smallholdings; planned and actual agricultural investment; household behavioral change around agroforestry and related climate smart agriculture activities; and livelihood improvements and climate resilience. Baseline data was collected prior to the start of TGCC activities in 2014. Endline data collection will take place in mid-2017, and the endline analysis and the publication of results will conclude in April 2018.


Baseline Data Collection: August 2014
Endline Data Collection: August 2017

The following baseline data sets and related documents are available for download:

Baseline Data SetsOther Baseline Documents
 TGCC Baseline Data Set: Headperson Data
 TGCC Baseline Data Set: Household Data
 TGCC Baseline Data Set: Leader Geospatial Data
 TGCC Baseline Codebook: Headperson
 TGCC Baseline Codebook: Household

Related survey instruments (surveys, discussion protocols, and interviews) and other evaluation documents can be downloaded below.


The TGCC IE will assess community and household impacts using five primary sources of data:

  • 3523 Household Surveys;
  • 294 Headperson Surveys;
  • Key Informant Interviews facilitated with youth group leaders and village land committee members in 294 villages;
  • Focus Group Discussions facilitated with women, youth, and land-constrained households in 45 villages; and
  • Comprehensive monitoring and evaluation data, as well as geospatial data, collected by the TGCC project.


Baseline findings suggest that households in the study area feel their land is relatively secure from encroachment from local or outside actors, though formal documentation of land rights is incredibly rare. A large majority of households (over 90%) in the study area report a desire to obtain formal documentation for their land, as they believe obtaining documentation will help to secure land rights and reduce land-related. conflicts, Households also report high levels of satisfaction and perceived transparency surrounding customary land governance, though few villages have a formal committee to address land-related issues. Agroforestry and climate-smart agriculture practices in the study area are not widespread, primarily due to lack of access to seedlings and lack of local capacity to care for agroforestry trees.


We encourage researchers who request and use this evaluation data to send a copy of any published research that draws on this data to landmatters@usaid.gov. We will post selected materials on this website to share with our visitors. Selected materials are marked “external” and inclusion of research using USAID data does not imply that USAID endorsement or support.