Land for Prosperity Annual Report (October 1, 2021 – September 30, 2022)

The Land for Prosperity Activity (hereafter “the Activity” or “LFP”) supports USAID/Colombia with the twin objectives of contributing to peace and stability and expanding licit livelihood options while incentivizing illicit crop substitution. The Activity is sustainably improving conditions of conflict-affected rural households through the framework of technical components, guiding principles, and enablers.

The attached document is LFP’s Year 3 Annual Report (October 1, 2021 — September 30, 2022)

Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) Annual Progress Report – 2022

Summary of Year 4

In Year 4, ILRG completed several global pieces, including revisions to the capacity assessment framework, as well as desk-based products on the intersection between biodiversity, zoonosis, and carbon mitigation objectives and on migration and forest condition. Additional analyses are underway. ILRG has coordinated with the Integrated Natural Resource Management program (INRM) on Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST), as well as completed a Property Rights Index (Prindex) report that will be disseminated in the coming year. In addition, ILRG’s cross-cutting women’s economic empowerment work and communications and learning work consolidated global tools and learnings that will be shared throughout FY 2023.

In Mozambique during FY 2022, ILRG managed five service providers in two existing field activities and started four new activities with three service providers. While ILRG’s previous work focused on the delimitation of community lands and household parcels, particularly around an ingrower model and land relinquishment activity, efforts this year focused on gender and social inclusion (GESI) with the associations and grower groups and supporting their effective engagement with private sector partners. After significant negotiation with government, towards the end of the year ILRG was able to start on a land documentation and land use planning process associated with post-disaster resettlement. ILRG was actively involved in discussions with the National Directorate of Land about interpretation and implementation of the existing Land Law, while also submitting comments and proposed language to the National Land Commission for inclusion in the updated National Land Policy. Further, the terms of reference (ToR) for a study comparing CaVaTeCo and the government’s formal methodology for land titling were finalized with the Supporting the Policy Environment for Economic Development (SPEED) project and USAID/Mozambique and discussed with the National Directorate of Land. However, the National Director subsequently indicated that he was no longer interested in this study.

In Zambia, ILRG adapted to the election of a new administration and changes in leadership in most of its partner ministries. With respect to land rights, ILRG strengthened the formal role of the cooperating partners group, completed land documentation in four chiefdoms, and launched chiefdom land secretariats in two additional chiefdoms. ILRG also supported gender integration into Zambia’s National Land Titling Programme. In the wildlife sector, ILRG hosted a series of consultations leading to the redrafting of the Wildlife Act, as well as a new curriculum for community scouts. ILRG also shared its gender work, governance training tools, baseline monitoring and reporting tools, and land use planning experience with new USAID natural resource programs in Zambia. ILRG did not make significant progress in land use planning exercises in Eastern and Central Provinces due to long-standing conflict and distrust in each case. ILRG found significant interest in gender integration from conservation stakeholders through the roll-out of two women’s leadership and empowerment cohorts with mid-level conservation managers. Finally, ILRG continued its engagement with traditional leaders and the House of Chiefs through gender guidelines roll out and completion of a diploma in traditional leaders.

On the Indigenous Peoples portfolio, ILRG is partnering with USAID/Peru to support integration of Indigenous Peoples engagement in their portfolio and is working at the global level to develop an online training module on implementing a process for free, prior and informed consent (FPIC).

In Ghana, ILRG completed its collaboration on deforestation-free cocoa with Hershey and Ecom Agroindustrial Corp. (ECOM). ILRG carried out trainings to help communities resolve disputes over land management and ownership, which marked an end to the land governance work associated with land documentation. ILRG further completed the negotiations with partners over the delivery of a multi-year payment for ecosystem services (PES) initiative that the companies will implement together to support tree planting after the life of ILRG, registering 325 farmers to plant 8,000 seedlings this year. ILRG also finalized an analysis of tree tenure policy, which will be a focus of the project’s final event.

In India, through USAID’s partnership with PepsiCo, ILRG support for WEE in the potato value chain made progress this year despite major floods. Women demonstrated improved skills in potato cultivation, as well as increased brand loyalty to PepsiCo. ILRG engaged with supportive aggregators who often decide which farmers will be most involved in potato cultivation and worked with PepsiCo’s agronomists to build their confidence in working with women farmers. Importantly, ILRG found that PepsiCo staff are much more aware of the relevance of gender to their work following ILRG’s interventions to date. Despite floods and economic losses, women farmers expressed interest in continuing to work with PepsiCo. Over the coming year, ILRG will examine the full package of practices that has been trialed to inform PepsiCo’s potential adoption and integration into their work. ILRG shared lessons with the PepsiCo Global Development Alliance (GDA) team.

In Liberia, ILRG continued support to the community lands protection process through grants to Sustainable Development Institute and Green Advocates International, and engaged a third partner, Foundation for Community Initiatives. This will result in the land documentation of 44 communities with a total population of over 225,000 people over the life of ILRG.

In Malawi, ILRG partnered closely with government to document household land rights across an entire traditional land management area (TLMA), which resulted in the demarcation of almost 8,000 land parcels. The support will ultimately complete customary land documentation across the entire Mwansambo Traditional Authority’s (TA’s) 24 group village headpersons with the exception of leasehold lands within the TA, which are undergoing a review from government. Significant work was undertaken across the area to influence gender norms, as well as provide approaches to gender inclusion in the documentation process.

In Ghana, ILRG has partnered with ECOM to increase its capacity to empower women within the cocoa value chain in Ghana, building on ECOM’s role as one of the largest global cocoa suppliers to dozens of chocolate brands. ECOM hired a Gender and Sustainability Specialist who has led the completion of a GESI strategy for the company for 2023 – 2027, in addition to a series of training materials that have now been integrated across 21 districts in Ghana. ILRG has supported ECOM’s review of their training materials for GESI, as well as establishment of village savings and loans associations that have reached over 1,000 women.

In the minerals sector, ILRG supported RESOLVE, in its capacity as secretariat for the Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Mineral Trade (PPA), as the PPA envisioned its next generation iteration for 2022 – 2027, with increased geographic scope and additional minerals of interest. ILRG is also supporting the work of International Peace Information Service (IPIS) to map artisanal mine sites and document conflict financing in eastern DRC.

The ILRG Madagascar activity continued to contribute to the integration of tenure considerations in the Sambirano Valley into the Climate Resilient Cocoa Landscapes (CRCL) initiative, through support to the multi-stakeholder resource governance platform known as the Sambirano Watershed Management Committee (COGEBS). Work this year focused on training the COGEBS as well as providing feedback to government and COGEBS on a recently started mass land titling process.

Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) Quarterly Report April – June 2022

Key Accomplishments and Challenges

Mozambique: ILRG supported the National Land Policy review, including comments that were made in subsequent drafts. ILRG continued to advocate for Mobile Approaches to Secure Tenure (MAST) for land registration, including a technical meeting with the National Directorate of Land to compare MAST approaches with the MozLand methodology. ILRG completed initial work with Grupo Madal and launched subsequent work on gender and support to agricultural extension and further community delimitation. ILRG also neared completion of work with Green Resources SA (GRAS) on land disinvestment and continued to support community associations on capacity to manage forests. Finally, ILRG finalized agreements in Sofala related to managing displaced communities, which included de-emphasizing household delimitation and focusing on land use planning.

Zambia: ILRG grantees and subcontractors, including Zambia Land Alliance (ZLA), Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS), Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO), Wildlife Producers Association of Zambia (WPAZ), and Zambia Community Resources Board Association (ZCRBA), moved forward on customary land documentation and administration, wildlife management and governance, and women’s empowerment. ILRG advanced wildlife governance trainings for community resource boards (CRBs) that will be replicated across the country and developed a program to support non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to combat gender-based violence (GBV) in the wildlife sector. ILRG financed activities to coordinate implementation of the National Land Policy. ILRG worked closely with two new USAID programs to promote the use of USAID-funded tools.

India: Harvest was completed in West Bengal, and ILRG collected quantitative and qualitative data to assess results on WEE, business metrics, and PepsiCo capacity, as well as to inform planning for the activity’s final year. Due to rains and floods, potato output and quality were below expected, and farmers had reduced profitability. Despite these challenges ILRG was able to provide 602 women and 25 men with potato package of practices (POP) training in three phases with positive results: women who attended POP and sustainable farming practice (SFP) training had better gross and net yields than women who did not receive training. Average gross and net yields for women-led demonstration farms plots were higher than for control plots. The effects of floods were devastating for the seven women’s land leasing groups (LLGs), who all experienced a loss. During this quarter ILRG was able to deliver two trainings that had been postponed because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A group of men and women farmers attended empowered entrepreneurship training, and all PepsiCo staff received GBV training. A survey with PepsiCo staff revealed that their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions related to gender equality and women’s roles in farming have improved considerably since 2019.

Liberia: ILRG’s support to customary land formalization continued this quarter with the engagement of a new partner, Foundation for Community Initiatives, to carry out a one-year grant to support eight communities in the formalization process. This complements the recently completed activities of Sustainable Development Institute as well as the finalization of customary land formalization activities by Green Advocates. Barriers remain in terms of government completion of confirmatory surveys, inter-community land dispute resolution, and deeds registration despite the completion of all steps incumbent on the community.

Malawi: ILRG continued field demarcation activities with the Malawi Land Reform Implementation Unit (LRIU), finalizing fieldwork in 10 of the 18 group village headperson areas, resulting in over 6,000 parcels completed of approximately 10,000 expected, with over 75 percent registered jointly. Land disputes are under consideration by the customary land tribunals (CLTs), and work on gender norms and women’s leadership and empowerment within customary land committees (CLCs) and traditional leaders continue to build a gender-responsive land documentation process. National learning events will begin in the coming quarter to inform the LRIU, as well as World Bank, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and other stakeholders, on land documentation processes.

Ghana Deforestation Free Cocoa: ILRG carried out final field visits to monitor the payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme. ILRG completed the economic analysis of proposed tree tenure reform that will be further shared in a final Ghana restitution workshop.

Ghana WEE: ILRG supported Ecom Agroindustrial Corp. (ECOM) to develop a draft country-level gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) strategy, based on information from a gender audit survey and discussions with ECOM staff and the initial ILRG gender assessment with cocoa farmers. The draft GESI strategy is going through rounds of consultation and feedback from company leadership. All 135 Ghana field staff received training on key GESI concepts, gender norms, GBV, GESI in the cocoa sector, and best practices for gender-responsive and socially inclusive farmer engagement. Curricula and materials have been developed for upcoming training for 12 management staff and a training of trainers (ToT) for 40 field staff who will deliver gender equality and gender norms change training to men and women farmers. ECOM and ILRG are revising ECOM’s existing gender and Good Social Practices (GSP) training programs to strengthen GESI content and include dialogues to shift harmful gender norms that affect division of labor, control of resources, decision-making, and gender-based violence in cocoa farming households. In keeping with the activity’s target, 2,290 men and women farmers (50/50 balance) have been registered to receive a revised training program starting in July. A total of 39 village savings and loans associations (VSLAs) with 857 women were established as a pathway for women in cocoa communities to take on leadership roles and access financial services and opportunities for diversified livelihoods.

WEE Cross-Cutting: This quarter ILRG supported USAID to prepare a learning session for the Land Advisors Community of Practice on private sector engagement, highlighting partnerships to strengthen women’s land rights in Ghana, India, and Mozambique.

Madagascar: ILRG focused on a series of land rights trainings and field visits for the Comité de Gestion du Bassin Versant Sambirano (COGEBS). A draft of the new Malagasy land law faced considerable resistance from advocacy groups, and ILRG carried out reviews of the implications of the law for USAID to engage in the donor sector. The Malagasy government revised the law, and ILRG is helping USAID document the change and its implications.

Other Activities: ILRG subcontractor International Peace Information Service (IPIS) is undertaking its third cycle of data collection on roadblocks and mining sites across eastern DRC. IPIS has met with USAID and presented at various workshops in DRC in April and June. PPA continued its development of a “next generation PPA” concept that focuses more on direct funding and allows members to more effectively learn from one another on implementation. The new Governance Committee will be selected in the next quarter and will continue focusing on the memorandum of understanding (MoU) for the next phase. Progress on Prindex continues with a final draft prepared during the last quarter, which will lead to two upcoming learning events. On Indigenous Peoples work, ILRG has advanced its technical support to USAID/Peru through a national legal analysis of free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) in the country, and subsequent questionnaire and webinar for mission staff to analyze their programmatic engagement with Indigenous Peoples. ILRG is also carrying out additional research under Sustainable Landscapes funding.

Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) Annual Progress Report – 2021

Summary of Year 3

During fiscal year (FY) 2021, ILRG continued to launch new activities in Madagascar, Malawi, Liberia, and DRC, as well as deepen work on women’s land rights and economic empowerment. Progress continued to be stalled in every country due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated international travel and local activity restrictions.

Nevertheless, there were substantial achievements in FY 2021: rights documentation processes continued in Ghana, Zambia, and Mozambique and were launched in Liberia and Malawi. Women’s land
rights activities were a major focus, and ILRG launched impactful work related to social norms change and women’s representation in land and resource governance bodies. Private sector partnerships were implemented in Mozambique with Grupo Madal and Green Resources SA. A second season of partnership with PepsiCo on WEE in the potato supply chain in West Bengal was completed successfully, with further engagement on PepsiCo’s long-term strategy. The long-standing partnership in Ghana with Hershey and Ecom Agroindustrial Corp. (ECOM) evolved into a novel payment for ecosystem services (PES) pilot. ILRG’s work with ECOM in Ghana will further explore WEE integration into the cocoa supply chain.

In Zambia, the National Lands Policy was approved with recognition of USAID’s substantial support. In
Mozambique, ILRG partnered with the National Land Commission to carry out broad surveys on the Land Law and policy. ILRG’s engagement in Malawi is primarily through government, as ILRG navigates the first large-scale implementation of the country’s new land laws. In Ghana, ILRG’s support on tree tenure remains its primary policy contribution, and in India, ILRG’s experience on land leasing in West Bengal continues to influence the state’s leasing policy. Finally in Liberia, ILRG’s engagements with the Land Commission have helped to navigate the community land deed registration process. Capacity building activities focused on gender integration in all countries, particularly around community natural resource governance in Zambia with five civil society and one private sector partner and their beneficiaries. In Madagascar, ILRG found an important role in stimulating private sector, civil society, and government awareness of land governance issues in the Sambirano Valley that ILRG will continue for the coming years.

ILRG also successfully carried out a large data collection process in Colombia to inform the Prindex
initiative. Activities in DRC related to conflict minerals and responsible sourcing were successfully launched and coordinated with the mission. Finally, in Mozambique activities related to disaster preparedness were launched in Sofala Province in response to both the conflict in Cabo Delgado and the impacts of frequent cyclones. ILRG’s portfolio has been reviewed for its ability to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation goals.

Priorities for FY 2022 include making significant progress in Malawi on customary land documentation and in Ghana with WEE through a partnership with ECOM. Further launching of field work for the disaster risk reduction pilots in Mozambique is also a major operational priority. As ILRG looks to its final two years, it is seeking to ensure that all country activities complete their implementation and impacts, and that learning opportunities are fully captured, particularly as they relate to WEE, private sector engagement, land rights documentation, community governance and natural resource management, and responsible sourcing of minerals.

Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) Annual Progress Report – 2020

Summary of Year 2

During fiscal year (FY) 2020, ILRG’s scope grew dramatically, with activities started or developed in Madagascar, Malawi, Liberia, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the focus of ILRG’s activities in Ghana, Mozambique, and Zambia shifted towards women’s economic empowerment (WEE) with funding from W-GDP. Yet progress was also stalled for the last two quarters of FY2020 due to the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and subsequent international travel and local activity restrictions. This has meant that new activities in Malawi and Ghana did not start field work, and Liberia and Madagascar activities were delayed.

Nevertheless, there were substantial achievements in FY2020: tens of thousands of women, men, and children participated in documentation of land rights for the first time in Ghana, Zambia, and Mozambique. At the same time that rights were first recorded, ILRG examined the extent to which these processes are sustainable and can be self-funded, and planned for long-term land administration using decentralized or community-based systems. Women’s land rights were a major focus, and ILRG successfully increased the percent of women with registered rights.

New private sector partnerships were negotiated in Mozambique with Novo Madal, Portucel, and Green Resources, which will be implemented through local partners in FY2021. The first year of a partnership with PepsiCo on WEE in the potato supply chain in West Bengal was completed successfully, with competitive harvests from female land leasing groups, as well as adapting and piloting of PepsiCo’s training materials to more effectively reach women. The long-standing partnership in Ghana with Hershey and Ecom Agroindustrial Corp. (ECOM) on land documentation and farm rehabilitation continued, demonstrating challenges related to farmer willingness to pay for land documents and a less productive than anticipated set of non-cocoa crops from land under rehabilitation. Yet new partnerships are emerging in Ghana with ECOM, Hershey, and new partner Mars related to WEE.

Policy processes and engagements were productive this year, with new openings in Mozambique for ILRG to formally engage in the policy and legislative process. The National Land Commission accepted ILRG’s proposal to support the national process of widespread consultation on the land law and land policy. This included input on the consultation methodology, as well as an agreement that ILRG will directly support the commission by developing a digital form to be used in thousands of surveys, provide the tablets that will be used to implement the survey, and establish the database for presentation of the data. In Zambia, ILRG provided technical and analytical support to: 1) the final validation of the draft National Land Policy; 2) development of customary gender guidelines; and 3) drafting of a Community Based Natural Resource Management Policy. In Ghana, ILRG continued to carry out analysis and build relationships on tree tenure reform, and in India, ILRG worked on lessons learned related to land leasing in West Bengal to influence the state’s leasing policy. ILRG continued to support USAID policy processes for example around sectoral and geographic case studies related to USAID’s Indigenous Peoples Policy. Capacity-building activities focused on gender integration and community natural resource governance in Zambia, particularly with five civil society and one private sector partner and their beneficiaries.

Priorities for FY2021 include launching and full-scale implementation of activities in: Malawi on documentation of women’s land rights; Madagascar on private sector partnership in landscape management; Liberia on community land rights documentation; DRC on responsible minerals; and Ghana on women’s land rights and empowerment.

Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) Annual Progress Report – 2019

Executive Summary

Fiscal year (FY) 2019 represented the first full year of activities for the USAID Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) program, including launch of activities in Zambia and Mozambique; assessment, design, and launch of partnerships in Ghana and India; early preparation for activity development in Liberia and Malawi; and support to USAID on analytical assessments. The program has a light management structure with a Chief of Party (COP) and Deputy Chief of Party monitoring overall global performance, supported by part-time task leads for each activity, as well as support for cross-cutting communications, gender integration, Mobile Approaches to Secure Tenure (MAST), and monitoring and evaluation services. Key achievements by task include the following:

In Mozambique, ILRG established relationships with two private sector companies to help advance their understanding of land tenure dynamics associated with their supply chains. Activities supported communities to document their rights at the association and household levels. The approach saw increased interest from district level government, which has taken responsibility for supporting the communities on internal negotiations over land use.

In Zambia, ILRG established relationships with focal ministries to support policy and regulation implementation and learning associated with customary land documentation and administration, integrated development planning, improved natural resource management, and development services. Five grantees began work at the district level to carry out related activities across at least 12 chiefdoms, and support national-level dialogue around community rights. Technical support was provided to advance the National Land Policy process, including trust-building among chiefs and the state.

In Ghana, ILRG re-established partnerships with the Hershey Company and Ecom Agroindustrial Corp (ECOM) to evaluate the impact of securing the rights of tenant farmers on inclusiveness of cocoa farm rehabilitation. The project undertook additional design related to land use planning activities and tree tenure reforms that could reduce deforestation pressures and incentivize tree planting on farms.

In India, a USAID-PepsiCo partnership was established to address women’s empowerment in the potato value chain in West Bengal, India; the activity started with an assessment and has now moved into implementation, with activity design based on the assessment findings. The activity hired a team of specialists and agronomists to work with women’s groups and PepsiCo female farmers prior to the 2019/2020 growing season, reviewed PepsiCo training materials for gender integration opportunities, identified women’s groups and communities to support, and delivered initial trainings.

ILRG organized and facilitated a consultation on USAID’s first Policy on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues, supported analysis for completion of the policy, and subsequently developed a series of sectoral and regional guidelines for USAID to inform implementation of the Policy.

At USAID’s request, ILRG carried out several smaller, short duration activities including supporting the finalization of E3/LU’s research/learning agenda, which is ongoing through early FY 2020, as well as the completion of a rapid land tenure and property rights assessment to inform USAID/Indonesia’s development of a new Country Development Cooperation Strategy.

Over the course of the year, ILRG prepared for various new assessments and opportunities. Activities that were initially discussed but ultimately abandoned or postponed include term activities in Mexico, completion support to USAID/Burma on law and policy, support to the African Land Policy Centre, and a tenure assessment in the Solomon Islands. Activities that are currently under development and are expected going forward include community land protection in Liberia, a local level deep dive on Prindex, and the design of a gender and land activity in Malawi.

Artisanal Mining and Property Rights Year 3 Annual Progress Report

AMPR supports the USAID’s Land and Resource Governance Office and the USAID DRC Mission Central Africa Program in improving land and resource governance and strengthening property rights for all members of society, especially women. It serves as USAID’s vehicle for addressing complex land and resource issues around ASM in a multidisciplinary fashion with a focus on diamonds and, to a lesser extent, gold production in the CAR. The project also provides targeted technical assistance to other USAID missions and OUs in addressing land and resource governance issues within the ASM sector. The project builds upon activities and lessons from the PRADD I and II projects. The AMPR contract was signed on September 28, 2018 and will run for five years (the two option years were approved in 2020).

Some highlights from Year 3 include:

  • Work Plan Advancements in the Face of Crisis: The AMPR team carried out the vast majority of work plan activities (88%) successfully by the end of the year despite the continued impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread insecurity following the December 2020 CAR presidential elections, treacherous road conditions, and day-to-day challenges such as the recurring lack of running water in the office. Details of project implementation successes are described below, as well as efforts to mitigate these challenges and minimize their impact on project implementation.
  • Strong Coordination with Government of CAR (GoCAR) Partners: AMPR has continued strong coordination with the Ministry of Mines and Geology (MMG) and other GoCAR partners. AMPR successfully coordinated with the MMG Director General to present technical documents to the Minister of Mines and Geology to issue a decree creating Société Centrafricaine d’Exploitation Diamantifère (SCED)-Ndéléngué pilot ZEA in Nola subprefecture. The project has also provided extensive support to the MMG’s efforts to revise the Mining Code and supported the Ministry of Humanitarian Action, Solidarity and National Reconciliation (MHASNR) to establish and officially install six additional CLPRs in Boda and Boganangone sub-prefectures. Most recently, the project has collaborated with the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Family and the Protection of Children (MPFFPE) to develop its strategy for the rollout of the Gender Innovation Fund planned for Year 4.
  • Implementation of Livelihoods Activities with Women’s and Mixed Gender Groups: Local subcontractor Association of Women for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship (AFPE) completed its contract in September 2021, under which they trained 21 women’s and mixed-gender livelihoods groups on agricultural production, artisanal soapmaking, village savings and loans, and basic literacy. As a result of their gardens and savings schemes, many groups were able to reinvest in their entrepreneurial activities and communities. For the local members, the generated savings and credit offerings is the only way to amass enough funds internally to offer a substantial loan to members through a tightly knit rotating saving and loan system independent of the formal—and in rural CAR, nonexistent—banking system.
  • Pastoralism and Conflict: Building on the Concordis International field research last year, an Issue Brief summarizing the state of knowledge about pastoralism and conflict along with multiple programmatic recommendations was prepared and widely disseminated. This fed into the State Department Working Group on Pastoralism and then it led to a series of webinars with the US Embassy and coalitions of international non-governmental actors around integrated and multi-scale policies needed to address the root causes of pastoralism related conflicts.
  • CAR Mining Code Review: AMPR prepared a detailed technical note with 50 key recommendations on CAR’s Mining Code. The note that focuses on the organization of the ASM sector; best practices for supply chain transparency and good governance; and the promotion of social cohesion and local development was presented to the Mining Code review committee during a full day’s workshop. The committee integrated about 80% of the recommendations into the new Mining Code draft.
  • Green Economy and Critical Minerals: AMPR’s Technical Deputy and two consultants prepared an in-depth analytical paper on the impact in USAID-presence countries of critical minerals needed in the rapidly expanding new Green Economy, and especially in the battery sector needed for electric vehicles.

Annual Report Fiscal Year 2020: October 1, 2019 – September 30, 2020

Executive Summary

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Ethiopia Feed the Future Ethiopia Land Governance Activity is a five-year, $10.9 million Task Order under the Strengthening Tenure and Resource Rights II (STARR II) Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) Contract implemented by Tetra Tech. This first Annual Report summarizes progress made to implement the Activity and the results achieved during the Fiscal Year 2020 (October 1, 2019 – September 30, 2020). The Activity’s purpose is to provide support to the Government of Ethiopia (GoE), its regions, and citizens to strengthen land governance, increase incomes, reduce conflict, and support well- planned urbanization, thereby contributing to the country’s socio-economic development plans.

In March 2020, the GoE declared a state of emergency, restricted domestic travel, issued a national work-at-home order, and banned large congregations to mitigate the spread of Novel Coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19). Based on these events, the Activity developed and implemented contingency planning to (1) protect the health, safety, and well-being of Activity staff and (2) ensure continuity of operations. These actions enabled the Activity to continue to implement and achieve results.

Important achievements during the first year of implementation include supporting the GoE reform federal and regional legislation governing both rural and urban land rights. The reforms will regulate the payment of fair and adequate compensation and resettlement assistance for government expropriation of land, introduce land tenure forms most suitable for agricultural development, and regularize informal rights in urban and peri-urban areas to strengthen Ethiopia’s land governance system.

The Activity assisted the GoE to enact and implement provisions of the Expropriation, Valuation, Compensation, and Resettlement Proclamation No.1161/2019 (developed with assistance from the predecessor USAID Land Administration to Nurture Development (LAND) Project) and to draft a regulation for land valuation. The Activity then provided training to a total of 39 federal and regional land administration officials to strengthen their capacity to implement the provisions of the new legislation. The Activity analyzed the rural land administration proclamations and regulations of the Amhara; Oromia; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP); and Tigray National Regional States (NRSs) to identify amendments that will be required to bring their legislation into conformity with the federal land administration proclamation once it is passed. The Activity has also assessed the urban legal framework to inform its support to develop a draft Urban Lands Registration Proclamation and a regulation to formalize rights in urban and peri-urban areas. Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture invited the Activity’s Chief of Party (COP) to serve on its Advisory Panel to guide substantive revisions to Ethiopia’s rural land policies and legislation.

Through its LAND intervention, USAID assisted the Oromia NRS Land Bureau to develop innovative legislation and participatory approaches to successfully pilot, for the first time in Ethiopia, demarcation, and registration of pastoral communities’ communal land rights. The Activity is replicating and scaling the piloted approaches. While COVID-19 work-at-home orders were in effect, the Activity agreed the modalities to remotely support the Land Bureau to carry out field work to demarcate the Gomolle dheeda (grazing unit). Building on the methodologies and capacities developed under the predecessor USAID Land Administration to Nurture Development (LAND) Project, the Activity helped guide Oromia officials to establish regional and zonal pastoral advisory committees and initiate creation awareness campaigns. Following social distancing protocols, the Activity supported a two-day orientation workshop to Oromia Land Bureau heads and senior management; and a seven-day practical, hands-on refresher course for Land Bureau surveyors originally trained by LAND to carry out field work independently with the Activity providing only advice and guidance. It is expected the field work will begin in November 2020.

Through the Activity, USAID is assisting the GoE to pilot methodologies to improve efficiency and reduce the costs of systematic urban land adjudication and registration (ULAR) using appropriate “fit for purpose” technologies. The Activity provided the Ministry of Urban Development and Construction (MoUDC) with analysis of ULAR processes and workflows to identify where new technologies and tools could be introduced to help make ULAR more efficient and participatory. The Activity is collaborating with the MoUDC to finalize a decision-making framework incorporating a vendor-neutral, technology agnostic approach and objective evaluation criteria to assess available technologies’ total costs and potential for sustainability and scalability to inform MoUDC’s selection of the appropriate technologies. After the technology is selected, the Activity will support a pilot to test its performance and improved workflows in Dukem town, Oromia NRS in the coming year.

The Activity successfully engaged federal and regional Women’s Land Task Forces (WLTF) established under LAND to strengthen provisions in new legislation to promote gender equity and youth’s access to land. WLTF members actively participated in legislative drafting committees the Activity supported and provided analysis and technical inputs to help shape legislation. The Activity also engaged WLTF representatives and gender advisors in land bureaus to identify and mitigate potential risks that women and youth could be excluded from participating and benefiting from ULAR processes; assess the performance of pastoral Community Land Governance Entities (CLGEs) established under LAND to help strengthen procedures to strengthen women and youth access to rangeland resources in the pastoral landholdings the Activity will help demarcate and register, and to develop baseline data collection tools to inform development of legislation in new regions to strengthen pastoral communities’ land rights.

Although the Activity assisted the GoE to achieve important results under extraordinarily difficult conditions, it fell short on a number of first-year performance indicator targets and did not complete its baseline data collection processes. It is noted, however, that  the overwhelming majority (over 80%) of indicators whose actuals deviated from targets related to demarcation and registration of pastoral landholdings and urban parcels. Registration activities are led by government implementing partners. A combination of GoE imposed work-at-home orders and travel restrictions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as emergencies in addition to the pandemic that required immediate response of government staff prevented them from conducting the field work and delayed implementation of these activities over the course of the year.



Artisanal Mining and Prosperity Rights (AMPR) Under the Strengthening Tenure and Resource Rights II (STARR II) IDIQ Annual Progress Report for Gender Livelihoods October 1, 2019-August 31,2020

Executive summary

The USAID Artisanal Mining and Property Rights (AMPR) Project in the Central African Republic aims to support the improvement of land and resource governance and strengthen property rights for all members of society, especially women. To ensure that both women and men gain the opportunity to equally participate in and benefit from the AMPR project, a Gender Action Plan was devised to help the project team identify and develop specific activities to benefit women in the mining areas, and ensure AMPR commitment to equitable stakeholder engagement for gender equity.

This report covers gender-related activities conducted under AMPR from October 2019 to August 2020. The main gender objectives for Year II were to support and improve the technical and organizational capacities of 21 women’s and mixed-gender groups in the target sub-prefectures of Carnot, Nola, and Boda, in order to spur economic empowerment and improve the social inclusion of women in mining areas. To implement these activities, AMPR subcontracted a local non-governmental organization called Association des Femmes pour la Promotion de l’Entreprenariat (AFPE), a women-led association for the promotion of entrepreneurship to provide technical training and mentoring to the AMPR-supported groups. In addition, the project team ensures effective representation and participation of women in local mining monitoring and conflict management committees.

In Year II, AMPR established relationships with 21 women’s and mixed-gender groups comprising a total of 535 members, including 425 women and 110 men. Almost all the groups identified food crops as their primary livelihood activity, and with the support of AFPE, AMPR provided training on improved agricultural practices to 52 specific farmers to become farming leaders, and provided technical assistance to their group members with support for replication using a farmer field school approach on 25 hectares, exceeding the 10 hectares initially planned. AFPE also facilitated training on village-level organizational strengthening for the leaders of the groups. 79 group leaders, of which 59 were women, received training of various topic and discussed the best strategies to apply them in their specific group’s dynamics. In addition to agricultural activities and in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, AMPR provided training and support to 10 women’s groups engaging in artisanal soapmaking, providing these groups with a complementary livelihood activity.

AMPR launched activities to increase women’s participation in the Kimberley Process (KP) Certification Scheme, with 10 women becoming members of the local mining monitoring committees (CLS), where they were familiarized with key KP requirements. In the compliant zones (ZEAs), women pit owners (chef de chantiers) have been actively involved in the discussion around establishing specific mining designated areas; community members and miners stakeholders agreed to have two women members in the local development committee to be set up to manage the ZEA.

While the project’s activities have been effective overall, critical factors challenged the project team during implementation and most likely affected outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic restricted gathering for a long period, forcing AMPR and AFPE to reduce some of the activities planned from all the group’s members to just a few leaders. The team also face some challenges in maintaining the women’s interest, as 39% of women dropped out of the groups, leading to an increase in the number of men and the establishment of 20 mixed groups out of the 21 selected by AMPR. Based on lessons learned from this year, the AMPR team has already started a review of their approach to address limits identified and strengthen collaboration with local technical authorities, now all in place at their respective posts.  AMPR will also strengthen collaboration with the European Union GODICA project and the World Bank Appui à la Professionnalisation des Coopératives Minières activity to improve support to women in mining areas, both in gold and diamond mining, as well as related livelihoods activities.