Land Rights & Natural Disaster Displacement in Sofala Province, Mozambique: Results & Lessons from the Lamadi Activity

The LAMADI activity under the Integrated Land and Resource Governance (ILRG) program was conceived to address land tenure issues in the context of displacement. The initial focus was to look at two situations of displacement, arising from different drivers that were manifesting in different parts of Mozambique. Firstly, displacement arising from the conflict in Cabo Delgado, which was assumed to be of a more temporary nature, and secondly, displacement caused through extreme weather events in the center of the country, which in the context of accelerating climate change and the advent of areas of high ongoing risk, could take on a more permanent character.

The focus on Cabo Delgado grew out of an engagement with the World Bank and the National Sustainable Development Fund (FNDS) to design safeguards and a methodology for addressing land issues for those displaced by the conflict. On completion of this task, the ILRG offered to pilot the implementation of the methodology as part of the LAMADI activity. Unfortunately, because of significant objections to the scope and strategy of the proposed pilot coming from the National Directorate of Land and Territorial Development, the FNDS and ILRG decided not to continue with this initiative.

The LAMADI activity therefore focused solely on the displacement which had arisen two years previously in Sofala province. Cyclone Idai made landfall in March 2019 near Beira City, bringing strong winds and torrential rains to Sofala, Zambézia, Tete, and Manica Provinces. It resulted in widespread flooding and caused significant and ongoing displacement. Approximately 94,000 people were displaced from their places of origin to resettlement areas across Nhamatanda, Buzi, and Dondo Districts. The aim in this context was to strengthen local capacities and resilience for dealing with land tenure challenges arising from displacements caused specifically by natural disasters and conflict. In addition to delimiting the land of host communities and addressing access and tenure issues of displaced populations, the activity was designed to pilot a variety of tools for the mapping of risk & vulnerability, as part of increasing local capacities to proactively plan for and respond to these short and long-term challenges. The activity was to be undertaken in close coordination with local government and local community leadership, and to include a significant capacity building focus at the local level.

This final report provides a summary of activities, results and lessons learned.