Evaluations and Research

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that stronger land tenure security has a positive impact on important development outcomes, such as household investment, women’s empowerment, agricultural productivity, rental markets, and credit.

While the initial evidence is encouraging, important knowledge gaps remain. Compared with the positive economic and food security gains seen from land tenure formalization programs in Asia and Latin America, results from similar programs in Africa have been mixed. There is also little evidence on the impact of alternative approaches to strengthening tenure, such as supporting customary land governance institutions or communal land certification, as opposed to more common efforts focused on formalizing property rights for individuals (e.g. land titling).

In this context, USAID is conducting eight rigorous impact evaluations in Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Tanzania, and Zambia to test development questions relevant to eliminating extreme poverty, empowering women, enhancing food security, improving natural resource management, improving climate change mitigation and adaptation, mitigating conflict, and promoting democratic governance and resilience.

Approach and Methods

All data sets, documentation, summary reports, and tools for data collection used in evaluations of our land tenure programs are provided here. These third-party evaluations are used to measure the impact of our development efforts and to foster learning and evidence-based decision making. These evaluations were designed in accordance with best practices set forth in USAID’s Evaluation Policy. This information is being made publicly available here as part of USAID’s commitment to transparency, accountability, and Open Data. We encourage researchers, governments, practitioners and others to access and use this information in accordance with the terms of use.

 




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Impact Evaluation

Impact Evaluation Feasibility Assessment of the USAID/Zambia Eastern Kafue Nature Alliance Activity

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this feasibility assessment (FA) is to assess the possible evaluation options for the Health, Ecosystems, and Agriculture for Resilient Thriving Societies (HEARTH) Eastern Kafue Nature Alliance activity (“Kafue Activity”) in Zambia. The assessment considers design options, including impact evaluation (IE) and performance evaluation (PE), that meet Agency-wide HEARTH and…Read More

Impact Evaluation

Evaluation of the Land for Prosperity (LFP) Activity in Colombia: Baseline Report

Data Collection (Baseline): 2022

This report provides baseline context for a mixed-methods impact evaluation (IE) of the USAID-supported “Land for Prosperity (LfP)” activity in Colombia. The evaluation aims to provide an evidence base for outcomes of LfP with respect to strengthening land rights and land governance, reducing illicit crop cultivation, and enhancing local livelihoods. The evaluation was commissioned by…Read More

Impact Evaluation

Evaluation Feasibility Assessment for Expanded Land for Prosperity Activities in Southern Meta and Vicinity of Chiribiquete National Park: Final Report

Climate Change and Natural Resource Management | Conflict

The Communications, Evidence, and Learning (CEL) project is conducting a desk-based evaluation feasibility assessment (FA) to help inform on design options for a mixed methods evaluation focused on selected interventions that USAID’s Land for Prosperity (LfP) activity will conduct in an expanded geographic region in Southern Meta and the vicinity of Chiribiquete National Park (SMVC)….Read More

Impact Evaluation

Feed the Future Tanzania Land Tenure Assistance Activity Evaluation

Data Collection (Baseline): 2017 | Data Collection (Endline): 2021

USAID/Tanzania, as part of the Feed the Future initiative, is funding the Land Tenure Assistance (LTA) activity to clarify and document land ownership, support local land use planning efforts, and increase local understanding of land use and land rights in Tanzania. DAI implements the LTA activity under a $6 million four-year contract that began in December 2015.

Impact Evaluation

Supporting Deforestation-Free Cocoa Initiative in Ghana

Data Collection (Baseline): 2019
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management | Economic Growth

Under the Communications, Evidence and Learning (CEL) Project, NORC at the University of Chicago is leading a mixed-methods quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the USAID-funded “Supporting Deforestation-Free Cocoa in Ghana” project activity[1]. The activity employs land tenure strengthening, land use planning and cocoa farm rehabilitation interventions to addresses complex drivers of deforestation and deteriorating livelihoods in…Read More

Impact Evaluation

Land Administration to Nurture Development Project (LAND) in Ethiopia – Afar

Data Collection (Baseline): 2016
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The LAND impact evaluations will assess the outcomes and impacts of interventions related to formally recognizing customary land rights of pastoral communities, improving communal land governance and strengthening pastoral communities’ capacity to engage in effective land use planning, land management and investment negotiations.

Impact Evaluation

Land Administration to Nurture Development Project (LAND) in Ethiopia – Oromia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The LAND impact evaluations will assess the outcomes and impacts of interventions related to formally recognizing customary land rights of pastoral communities, improving communal land governance and strengthening pastoral communities’ capacity to engage in effective land use planning, land management and investment negotiations.

Performance Evaluation

Land and Rural Development Program (LRDP) in Colombia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2013

LRDP was designed as an institutional strengthening initiative to help the Government of Colombia (GoC) improve its ability to resolve complex land and rural development issues through addressing institutional bottlenecks across four program components: restitution, formalization, rural development, and information management.

Impact Evaluation

Tenure and Global Climate Change (TGCC) in Zambia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014 | Data Collection (Endline): 2017
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The primary objective of the TGCC impact evaluation is to determine whether or not village and household tenure interventions strengthen smallholder tenure security and resource rights and, in turn, lead to increasing farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry and increased adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices.

Impact Evaluation

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development Project II (PRADD II) in Guinea

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014
Artisanal and Small-scale Mining | Climate Change and Natural Resource Management | Natural Resource Management

The PRADD II Guinea evaluation will assess the project’s impact on strengthening surface and sub-surface property rights, enhancing livelihood outcomes, reducing land and natural resource conflict and promoting the environmental rehabilitation of artisanal mining sites with a focus on the differential impacts these interventions have on women, resource-constrained and other potentially vulnerable groups, such as youth.

Impact Evaluation

Land Administration to Nurture Development Project (LAND) in Ethiopia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The LAND impact evaluation will assess the outcomes and impacts of interventions related to formally recognizing customary land rights of pastoral communities, improving communal land governance and strengthening pastoral communities’ capacity to engage in effective land use planning, land management and investment negotiations.

Impact Evaluation

Ethiopia Land Tenure Administration Program (ELTAP) and Ethiopia Land Administration Program (ELAP)

Data Collection (Baseline): 2007 | Data Collection (Endline): 2015
Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

The ELTAP/ELAP evaluation estimates the impacts of second-level certification relative to first-level certification on household beneficiaries in terms of access to credit; land disputes; land rental activity; soil and water conservation investments; land tenure security and female empowerment and decision-making related to land.